June 29, 2022
The goal of green building construction is achieved through operation and management. The operation of green buildings adheres to the concept of “people-oriented” and sustainable development during the whole life of the building. On the basis of traditional property services, through the application of appropriate technology, information technology and intelligent technology, to achieve land, energy, water, and energy saving. Materials and environmental protection goals.
The author found in participating in the certification of the green building star label, because some operations-related projects do not participate in the design certification or do not need to provide data certification, so they are not taken seriously, and difficulties often occur when operating certification. This highlights an important issue, how to implement technical measures for comprehensive monitoring of green buildings.
1. Intelligent technology is an important foundation for supporting green buildings
1.1. Operation and management of green buildings
Since the operation and management of green buildings need to be implemented in the daily work of property management, the operation and management strategies and objectives of green buildings need to be determined in the planning and design stage, and continuous improvement during the operation process.
The "Property Management Regulations" promulgated by my country, the "Decision of the State Council on Amending the "Property Management Regulations", "Property Service Charge Management Measures", "Property Management Enterprise Qualification Management Measures" and other laws and regulations are gradually regulating the property management industry. The property management operator is entrusted by the property owner to exercise management rights in accordance with national laws and management standards and entrusted contracts, use modern maintenance and maintenance technology, and use economic means to maintain, repair, and operate the property and its surrounding environment, and is the user Provide a variety of services to maximize the use value and economic benefits of the property.
The regular contents of property management services include water supply and drainage, gas, power and telecommunications, security, greening, cleaning, parking, fire protection and elevator management, and daily maintenance of shared facilities and equipment. The operation and management of green buildings is different from it, in comparison with the following characteristics:
●Adopt the cost analysis method of the whole life cycle of the building, formulate the green building operation management strategy and target, save resources to the greatest extent, protect the environment and reduce pollution.
●Adhere to the "people-oriented", to provide building users with a healthy, applicable and efficient living and working environment.
●Apply appropriate technology, information technology and intelligent technology to implement efficient operation and management.
The operation and management of the building is implemented through the property management company. It is necessary to handle the relationship between the user, the building and the nature. It is necessary to create a safe and comfortable space environment for the user while protecting the surrounding environment. For the natural environment, do a good job in energy conservation, water conservation, material conservation and greening, and achieve various design indicators for green buildings, embodying scientific and standardized management and high-quality and efficient services.
Although the operation and management of green buildings has attracted people's attention, there is still a disconnection between the construction party, the designer, the construction party and the property service party. This requires the construction party to give more consideration to the overall requirements and implementation details of future operation and management in the construction phase; it requires the intervention of property service companies in the early stage of the project to ensure the completeness of the relevant project completion data. At present, most of the real estate companies have not established the concept of green operation service, and many real estate employees have not received professional training, and have difficulty in mastering the operation and management of green buildings, especially smart technology. Therefore, there is still a lot of work to be done in the field of green building operation and management.
1.2. Intelligent systems in green buildings
In recent years, green buildings have developed rapidly because they are in line with the national sustainable development policy and the mainstream of energy conservation and environmental protection in the world. Both the engineering and real estate industries have made the construction of green buildings their main work content. However, as a product of high-tech integration, green buildings are in their infancy in China, just like smart buildings 20 years ago. People often lack scientific rigor when constructing their ideals with high enthusiasm and avant-garde concepts.
1.2.1 Problems in the practice of green building engineering
In engineering practice, due to various utilitarian influences, our actions often have the following situations unintentionally or intentionally.
1) Emphasis on form and concept, less practical and long-term effects
Some green buildings have strengthened the green concept during construction, combining various green building materials, green building design methods, energy-saving technologies, energy-saving equipment, etc. in an isolated building to obtain the title of various green building demonstration projects , But only introduces ideal design values or simulation results, lacks complete test data and operating data, and cannot provide real cost information for construction and operation.
2) Lack of analysis of lifetime cost
Any artificial facility in modern society needs a life-cycle cost analysis. According to its construction investment and the cost of maintenance function during its life, the life cycle cost is obtained, and then the effect of the investment is analyzed from the income of the facility.
The construction cost of using energy-saving and environmental protection equipment and renewable energy facilities in green buildings is very high, and the life of all equipment is much shorter than the life of the building, so operation and maintenance costs are expensive. However, after these inputs, have the expected benefits obtained? How much energy can be saved after the facility is put into operation? What is the cost of facility energy saving/capacity? What are the environmental costs of facility operation? There are indeed many unclear questions.
1.2.2 Monitoring of green building operation and management
The monitoring of green building operation management is to ensure the realization of its construction goals in operation, and analyze the efficiency and defects of the building's energy saving and environmental protection through real-time operating data. It should be pointed out that this monitoring is not a performance test of green building materials and energy-saving facilities, but a verification of the effectiveness of green buildings from the overall project.
1) Monitoring content
The monitoring of green building operation data can be roughly divided into three categories: environmental monitoring, energy monitoring and facility monitoring.
Environmental monitoring includes indoor and outdoor temperature, humidity, CO2, illuminance, outdoor wind speed and indoor natural ventilation air flow rate.
Energy monitoring includes building energy parameters such as voltage, current, electricity (sub-measured value) and its cumulative amount, gas consumption and its cumulative amount, fuel consumption and its cumulative amount, water supply and its cumulative amount, The cold/heat and its cumulative amount provided by the area, the electricity and its cumulative amount provided by renewable energy, and the cold/heat and its cumulative amount, etc.
The facility monitors the temperature inside and outside the wall, the battery voltage and inverter status parameters of the solar photovoltaic power generation system, the water temperature, water level and water quality of the working well and detection well of the ground/water source heat pump unit, and the soil heat exchanger of the ground source heat pump unit The pressure loss of the ground/water source heat pump unit, the inlet water temperature and flow rate of the ground/water source heat pump unit, the heat gain and heat release of the circulating water, etc.
2) Monitoring technology
The monitoring contents of green buildings mainly include temperature, temperature, illuminance, pressure, flow, flow rate, voltage, current, electricity, CO2, water quality, etc. The cold and heat are usually measured indirectly through calculations of temperature and flow. Although these parameters are not complicated, and the measurement range is much smaller than that of industry, aviation, and aerospace, the accuracy requirements are not very high, but due to the diversity of detection sites, the requirements for detectors are very different. Take temperature detectors as an example. For testing indoor temperature, supply air temperature, outdoor temperature, chilled water temperature, wall temperature, water well temperature, boiler gas temperature, etc., you need to choose temperature detectors with different types, different protection forms, and different sensors. , And even different measurement principles.
The monitoring of green buildings is mostly divided into different professional test systems, which not only need to obtain stable, reliable and accurate data on the environment and facility operation inside and outside the building, but also require preliminary processing of the monitoring data. For example, the heat flow meter commonly used in the measurement of building heat consumption is used to measure the heat transfer and physical performance parameters of the building envelope or various insulation materials; the on-site heat transfer coefficient detector can realize the on-site envelope structure transmission without seasonal restrictions Thermal coefficient detection. Another example is the infrared thermal imaging camera that can measure the thermal defects of the building envelope (such as: cavities, thermal bridges, dampness, spalling, etc.) from a long distance, and the measured various thermal images can characterize the thermal defects of the building structure Location and size. Part of the monitoring data comes from the facility, and its monitoring system is transmitted to the monitoring platform through the communication interface. Ground source heat pumps, water source heat pumps, solar photovoltaic power generation equipment, and other professional monitoring systems of their own, continuously collect relevant data to ensure the normal operation of the equipment. These devices are distributed inside and outside the building. The biggest difficulty in bringing these data together is that their monitoring systems are often closed and cannot transmit data outside. Although some have communication interfaces, their protocols are not willing to be disclosed, which requires a lot of money. The investment in cracking this kind of information island, otherwise a large number of detection devices will be repeated. In order to reduce the cost of green building construction and operation, equipment manufacturers of various green buildings need to fully consider the design of information interaction with the outside world.
1.2.3 Analysis of green building operation data
Green buildings set up ecological facilities and energy-saving facilities on the basis of traditional buildings, and replaced building materials and construction parts, which undoubtedly requires increased construction costs. This kind of increase in investment can obtain ecological and environmental protection benefits and reduce operating costs, which is also what people expect. However, the analysis of this should not stay at the stage of design goals and theoretical expectations. It should be through the actual operation of the whole life cycle of green buildings. Data analysis gives a conclusion.
There are many evaluation index systems for green buildings. Such as China's "Green Building Evaluation Standards", the UK's "Building Environment Assessment Method" (BREEAM), the United States' "LEED Green Building Rating System", Canada's "Green Building Evaluation Tool" (GBTool) and Japan's CASBEE. Since green building examples in different regions and countries are not necessarily comparable, it is difficult to establish a globally unified green building performance parameter index and certification system, and the different starting points based on technology and business also bring about differences in evaluation methods. In recent years, my country has derived the green building evaluation rules for hospital buildings, industrial buildings, and office buildings on the basis of the "Green Building Evaluation Standards". The evaluation methods are being refined in the form of classification and become more practical work guidance.
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